Everything you need to know about hypertension Hypertension or high blood pressure can lead to heart disease, stroke, and death and is a major global health concern. A range of risk factors may increase the chances of a person developing hypertension, but can it be prevented? Read on to find out what causes hypertension, its symptoms, types, and how to prevent it. Read now
Medications used to lower blood pressure include diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide*), beta-blockers (e.g., atenolol, metoprolol), ACE inhibitors (e.g., ramipril, enalapril, lisinopril), calcium channel blockers (e.g., nifedipine, amlodipine), angiotensin II receptor blockers (e.g., losartan, valsartan), and direct renin inhibitors (e.g., aliskiren).
Your blood pressure is reported by placing the systolic number over the diastolic number. For example, your blood pressure might be reported as 120/80. To be diagnosed with high blood pressure, only one of these numbers must be outside of the normal range. But, remember that one high reading doesn’t mean there’s a problem. High blood pressure is a condition that can only be diagnosed by your doctor.
To measure your blood pressure, a specialist places an inflatable cuff around your arm and measures your blood pressure using a pressure-measuring gauge. A blood pressure reading, as shown in the blood pressure monitor in the image, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats (systolic pressure) in the first number, and the pressure in your arteries between heartbeats (diastolic pressure) in the second number.
Blood pressure is measured both when the heart is actually beating (systolic pressure – the first measurement) and between beats (the resting rate, or diastolic pressure – the second measurement). It is given as two figures, eg 120/80. A device called a sphygmomanometer is used. An inflatable cuff is wrapped around your upper arm. When inflated the cuff stops the blood flow in the main blood vessel in your arm. The nurse then watches a gauge in the sphygmomanometer and listens through a stethoscope as the air in the cuff is released. When the first sound of the heartbeat is heard, the systolic pressure is recorded. When the sound disappears, the diastolic pressure is recorded. Sometimes a computerised blood pressure machine is used to take the readings automatically.
Methyldopa, formerly known under the brand name Aldomet, is one of the oldest blood pressure medications still in use. It was first introduced more than 50 years ago. Methyldopa works in the central nervous system to lower blood pressure. While its general use has declined over the years, methyldopa is considered the first-line of treatment for high blood pressure that develops during pregnancy.
Blood pressure readings fall into four general categories, ranging from normal to stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension). The level of your blood pressure determines what kind of treatment you may need. To get an accurate blood pressure measurement, your doctor should evaluate your readings based on the average of two or more blood pressure readings at three or more office visits.
Last year, new guidelines from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and nine other health organizations lowered the numbers for the diagnosis of hypertension (high blood pressure) to 130/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and higher for all adults. The previous guidelines set the threshold at 140/90 mm Hg for people younger than age 65 and 150/80 mm Hg for those ages 65 and older.
Some research on watermelon extract and high blood pressure suggests the amino acid citrulline found in the fruit may help manage high blood pressure. One study found those who took watermelon extract showed reduced blood pressure specifically in the ankles and arm arteries. Other studies on mice also show watermelon’s positive effect. Although more research is needed to determine the specifics, eating fruit like watermelon isn’t going to hurt.
An important part of a high blood pressure treatment plan is to stick to a healthy diet, including limiting sodium intake. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend consuming less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium per day (2). People with high blood pressure may need to restrict sodium intake even more. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends an ideal limit of no more than 1,500 mg per day for adults with hypertension. (3)
Blood pressure is assessed using two parameters -- the systolic and diastolic pressures -- which measure, respectively, the maximum pressure exerted in the arteries as the heart contracts, and the minimum pressure in those vessels between cardiac contractions. In adults, blood pressure is considered normal if the top number (systolic pressure) is between 90 and 120 and the bottom number (diastolic) is between 60 and 80.
If you're not taking a diuretic and your blood pressure remains high, talk to your doctor about adding one or replacing a drug you currently take with a diuretic. Diuretics or calcium channel blockers may work better for people of African heritage and older people than do angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors alone. A common side effect of diuretics is increased urination.
Take your medicines and monitor your blood pressure. Take the medications prescribed for you regularly and don’t stop them except on the advice of your health care provider. Hypertension tends to worsen with age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your health care provider measure your blood pressure periodically. You may also want to buy a home blood pressure monitor, available in many drug stores, to measure your blood pressure more frequently. Your health care provider or pharmacist can help you choose the right device. Many drug stores also have blood pressure measuring devices you can use in the store.
As for when to check your blood pressure, the most important thing is to do it consistently the same time of the day (ask the doctor which time he prefers and also what time in relation to taking your medication). The following article has a lot of good information for someone just starting to monitor their blood pressure: https://www.drugs.com/cg/how-to-take-a-blood-pressure.html
For older people, often the first number (systolic) is 130 or higher, but the second number (diastolic) is less than 80. This problem is called isolated systolic hypertension, which is due to age-related stiffening of the major arteries. It is the most common form of high blood pressure in older people and can lead to serious health problems (stroke, heart disease, eye problems, and kidney failure) in addition to shortness of breath during light physical activity, lightheadedness upon standing too fast, and falls. Isolated systolic hypertension is treated in the same way as regular high blood pressure (130 or higher for the first number, or 80 or higher for the second number) but may require more than one type of blood pressure medication. If your doctor determines that your systolic pressure is above a normal level for your age, ask how you can lower it.
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Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels and constitutes one of the principal vital signs. The pressure of the circulating blood decreases as blood moves through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins; the term blood pressure generally refers to arterial pressure, i.e., the pressure in the larger arteries, arteries being the blood vessels which take blood away from the heart.
Health care providers measure blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer (sfig-mo-muh-NAH-muh-ter), which has a cuff that's wrapped around the upper arm and pumped up to create pressure. When the cuff is inflated, it squeezes a large artery in the arm, stopping the blood flow for a moment. Blood pressure is measured as air is gradually let out of the cuff, which allows blood to flow through the artery again.
Your circulatory system is very much like the hot tub’s. Your blood is like the water. Your heart is like the pump, and your blood vessels are like the pipes. Your heart pumps your blood through the circulatory system in order to feed oxygen and nutrients to cells throughout your body, and to remove waste products. By circulating through the system, your blood is filtered and re-utilized, again and again.
Your doctor may recommend the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which focuses on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, as well as fat-free or lowfat dairy products, fish, poultry, beans, nuts, and vegetable oils. The DASH plan also limits foods high in saturated fats, including fatty meats, full-fat dairy products, and tropical oils, like coconut and palm oils, as well as sugary drinks and other sweets. (5)
She'll inflate the cuff to a pressure higher than your systolic blood pressure, and it will tighten around your arm. Then she'll release it. As the cuff deflates, the first sound she hears through the stethoscope is the systolic blood pressure. It sounds like a whooshing noise. The point where this noise goes away marks the diastolic blood pressure.
Because of the need for emergency care, it is important to recognize the early signs of malignant hypertension. The first giveaway is blood pressure of 180/120. You might have bleeding in the eyes due to rupture of the small blood vessels. Other malignant hypertension symptoms can include chest pain, dizziness, a headache, numbness in your extremities, and confusion.
Caffeine can raise blood pressure by tightening blood vessels and magnifying the effects of stress, says James Lane, PhD, a Duke University researcher who studies caffeine and cardiovascular health. "When you're under stress, your heart starts pumping a lot more blood, boosting blood pressure," he says. "And caffeine exaggerates that effect." (Not sure whether you need to cut back? Here are 6 physical symptoms that mean you're drinking too much coffee.)
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