Thiazide diuretics are a class of drugs commonly recommended as first-line treatment for raised blood pressure because they significantly reduce death, stroke and heart attacks. This class includes bendrofluazide, chlorthalidone, cyclopenthiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide and metolazone. We asked by how much does this class of drugs lower blood pressure and whether there is a difference between individual drugs within the class. We searched the available scientific literature to find all the trials that had assessed this question. The data included in this review was up to date as of February 2014.
The American Heart Association considers 120/80 to be a normal blood pressure reading. Unless you have been diagnosed with high blood pressure you may not realize anything is wrong so it is important to get tested each time you see your doctor, or more frequently if you have a family history of hypertension. Often, hypertension has no obvious symptoms, but it could be quietly causing damage and threatening your health. This condition overworks the heart and damages the walls of the blood vessels. If left untreated, it can lead to tears, ruptures, or increased plaque build-up in your heart, which increases your risk for heart failure, heart attack or stroke.
These drugs block the effects of angiotensin, a chemical that causes the arteries to become narrow. Angiotensin needs a receptor- like a chemical "slot" to fit into or bind with- in order to constrict the blood vessel. ARBs block the receptors so the angiotensin fails to constrict the blood vessel. This means blood vessels stay open and blood pressure is reduced.
It is important to go to your regular check-ups with your doctor. Hypertension is a common condition and, if caught, can be treated with medication to prevent complications. However, if you experience any of the symptoms of hypertension, such as frequent headaches, recurrent dizziness, nosebleeds, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, don't wait—speak to your doctor immediately.
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The average blood pressure for an adult is 120/80 mm Hg. However, this is only an average and the healthcare provider needs to consider acceptable ranges for individual clients. For example, in adults, normal blood pressure can range from 95–145/60–90 mm Hg. The healthcare provider considers the client’s baseline blood pressure and the client’s current health state in conjunction with subjective data and other objective data. For example, a blood pressure of 90/50 mm Hg may be normal for a healthy, asymptomatic 20-year-old adult.
If you’re feeling overwhelmed about how to make changes to your diet or if you’re trying to lose weight, you may want to consider working with a registered dietitian-nutritionist (RDN). Some people work with an RDN if they have a health condition like type 2 diabetes. In fact, high blood pressure is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. This is partly because they share similar modifiable risk factors, like being overweight or obese, following an unhealthy diet, and having a lack of physical activity.
Swearing off cigarettes is probably the single best thing you can do for your heart. It’s good for your health in general, too. Not only does smoke hurt you over the long term, but your blood pressure goes up every time you have a cigarette. Lower your blood pressure and prolong your life by quitting. If you need help getting started, talk to your doctor.
When a blood pressure reading is taken, the higher number represents the systolic pressure and the lower number represents the diastolic pressure. For example: 120/80 (120 over 80) in an adult means that the systolic pressure is 120 and the diastolic pressure is 80. As kids grow, their blood pressure increases from a systolic pressure of about 70–90 (as babies) to adult values (when they're teens).
Certain groups of people—the elderly, African Americans, and those with a family history of high blood pressure—are more likely than others to have blood pressure that's particularly salt-sensitive. But because there's no way to tell whether any one individual is at risk, everyone should consume less sodium, says Eva Obarzanek, PhD, a research nutritionist at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Primary (or essential) hypertension is when the cause is unknown. The majority of hypertension cases are primary. When there is an underlying problem such as kidney disease or hormonal disorders that can cause hypertension, it is called secondary hypertension. When it is possible to correct the underlying cause, high blood pressure usually improves and may even return to normal.
As you age, prevention becomes even more important. Systolic pressure tends to creep up once you’re older than 50, and it’s far more important in predicting the risk of coronary heart disease and other conditions. Certain health conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease, may also play a role. Talk to your doctor about how you can manage your overall health to help prevent the onset of hypertension.
From long hours at the office to those little annoyances like traffic jams, day-to-day life provides us with a seemingly endless supply of little stresses. While those itty-bitty amounts of stress may seem like no big deal at first, over time, they can send your blood pressure skyrocketing, taking your health along for the ride. That’s why you need to stock up on foods that lower blood pressure.
Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff (sphygmomanometer). This may be done using a stethoscope and a cuff and gauge or by an automatic machine. It is a routine part of the physical examination and one of the vital signs often recorded for a patient visit. Other vital signs include pulse rate, respiratory rate (breathing rate), temperature, and weight.
Many blood pressure medications, known as antihypertensives, are available by prescription to lower high blood pressure (HBP or hypertension). There are a variety of classes of high blood pressure medications and they include a number of different drugs. In the widget below, you will find an overview of the classes of blood pressure medication. To expand the information on a type of medication, simply click on the subject tab.
Consider once again the analogy of the garden hose. If you turn on the water “harder,” there is more pressure in the hose. Excessive salt in the diet can result in excessive fluid volume in the blood, which results in elevated blood pressure. This cause, too, is reversible, as a plant-based diet of whole, natural foods, devoid of added salt, is naturally low in sodium chloride.

Caffeine can raise blood pressure by tightening blood vessels and magnifying the effects of stress, says James Lane, PhD, a Duke University researcher who studies caffeine and cardiovascular health. "When you're under stress, your heart starts pumping a lot more blood, boosting blood pressure," he says. "And caffeine exaggerates that effect." (Not sure whether you need to cut back? Here are 6 physical symptoms that mean you're drinking too much coffee.)
Blood pressure rises as we get older but some people defy this seemingly inevitable development. Regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, a low fat (especially saturated animal fat) and low salt diet, quitting smoking and reducing the amount of alcohol consumed will all have an effect. Even allowing for all that, the blood pressure of vegetarians doesn’t increase in the same way as meat eaters’ – in fact, it goes up little with age. It’s not surprising, then, that a vegetarian diet can be used to treat high blood pressure. It is the totality of the vegetarian diet that works, not any specific ingredient. Vegetarians’ lower risk of high blood pressure is considerable and can be anywhere between 33-50 per cent. There is an inescapable link with meat and a Californian study as long ago as 1926 showed this.
Primary (or essential) hypertension is when the cause is unknown. The majority of hypertension cases are primary. When there is an underlying problem such as kidney disease or hormonal disorders that can cause hypertension, it is called secondary hypertension. When it is possible to correct the underlying cause, high blood pressure usually improves and may even return to normal.
Partner with your doctor. Ask if there are any take steps you can take to lessen medication side effects. For example, to lessen the effects of low blood pressure, it may help to avoid standing for a long time in the sun. In some cases, side effects such as fatigue or diarrhea may subside with time. In other cases, your doctor may change the dosage or prescribe another high blood pressure medication. A combination of medications sometimes works better than one medication alone by not only improving high blood pressure control but also by reducing side effects.
Dietary changes: The health care provider might recommend a diet that includes more vegetables (especially leafy green vegetables), fruits, low-fat dairy products, and fiber-rich foods, and fewer carbohydrates, fats, processed foods, and sugary drinks. He or she also might recommend preparing low-sodium dishes and not adding salt to foods. Watch out for foods with lots of hidden salt (like bread, sandwiches, pizza, and many restaurant and fast-food options).
There are many popular medical myths about high blood pressure. For example, many physicians believe that high blood pressure is an “inevitable consequence of aging;” that the “only viable treatment option for high blood pressure patients is medication”; that high blood pressure patients must take their medications “for the rest of their lives”; and, worst of all, that high blood pressure medications are “safe and effective.”
This headache isn't the kind that you pop some over-the-counter meds and it goes away. If you're getting severe headaches with no prior history of migraines, high blood pressure may be to blame. Extremely high blood pressure, known as malignant hypertension, puts pressure in the cranium (the part of the skull that encloses the brain). As blood pressure rises, pain builds in the cranium. That causes severe headaches.
However, individuals will respond quite differently to these medications. Jim might respond quite nicely to a thiazide, but fail with a calcium blocker, and the case with Jane might be the exact reverse. There is generally no way ahead of time to predict which person will do well with which kind of medication. So, what doctors and patients are left with is an educated trial-and-error approach.
I am trying to determine whether there is an association between time spent online and reported problems. I have divided my participants into two groups: the low user group and the high user group. I would like to see if there is a difference between the two groups. I used a Likert-Scale for my questionnaire, where the participants could either strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree, or strongly agree with a number of statements regarding various issues related to their Internet habits. Does anyone know what kind of statistical analysis I should use in order to determine whether there is an association or not?
A person consistently showing blood pressure higher than 140/90 over several readings is considered to have hypertension. Doctors advise these people to make effective lifestyle changes to help lower their blood pressure, such as maintaining a healthy weight, including exercise in their daily routine, limiting salt and alcohol intake, and quitting smoking. The doctors will also recommend medication for hypertension depending on how much higher the BP is as compared to the normal blood pressure range and any other health problems that the patient faces.
Cut down on salt. As you get older, the body and blood pressure become more sensitive to salt (sodium), so you may need to watch how much salt is in your diet. Most of the salt comes from processed foods (for example, soup and baked goods). A low-salt diet, such as the DASH diet, might help lower your blood pressure. Talk with your doctor about eating less salt.
The average blood pressure for an adult is 120/80 mm Hg. However, this is only an average and the healthcare provider needs to consider acceptable ranges for individual clients. For example, in adults, normal blood pressure can range from 95–145/60–90 mm Hg. The healthcare provider considers the client’s baseline blood pressure and the client’s current health state in conjunction with subjective data and other objective data. For example, a blood pressure of 90/50 mm Hg may be normal for a healthy, asymptomatic 20-year-old adult.
A little tomato on your menu could be the key to healthier blood pressure. In addition to boasting plenty of vitamin C and quercetin, tomatoes are a great source of lycopene, which researchers at Ben-Gurion University in Israel have linked to significant reductions in blood pressure. Just don’t try to get your fix from ketchup or bottled tomato sauce; the combination of sugar and salt in most recipes can send your blood sugar through the roof.
As you age, prevention becomes even more important. Systolic pressure tends to creep up once you’re older than 50, and it’s far more important in predicting the risk of coronary heart disease and other conditions. Certain health conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease, may also play a role. Talk to your doctor about how you can manage your overall health to help prevent the onset of hypertension.
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