High blood pressure is usually caused by lifestyle factors as well as being genetically predisposed making up about 90-95% of cases hence being known as primary high pressure. Lifestyle factors can involve having excess sodium in the diet, high levels of body fat, smoking as well as alcohol. Secondary high blood pressure on the other hand is caused by an identifiable caused which is often time’s chronic kidney disease or even the use of birth control pills.


For most people, the first-choice medication for high blood pressure is a thiazide diuretic. For other people, a diuretic alone is not enough to control blood pressure. In these cases, a diuretic may be combined with a beta-blocker, ACE inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker, or calcium channel blocker. Adding a second medication may lower your blood pressure more quickly than using a diuretic alone. Also, it allows you to take less of each medication, which may reduce side effects.
"The implications and potential benefits of such healthier lifestyles could be great, particularly since about 22% of the adult population falls into the prehypertensive category," says Chobanian, who is also dean of the Boston University School of Medicine. "In fact, the blood pressure effects of weight reduction or adoption of the DASH eating plan can be comparable to those achieved with any single blood pressure medication."

Digital blood pressure readings have two numbers – systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. The top number is your systolic blood pressure (the highest pressure when your heart beats and pushes blood around your body), and the bottom number is your diastolic blood pressure (the lowest pressure between heart beats). A blood pressure reading is usually these two numbers over each other – like 120/80.

Meditate or take slow, steady deep breaths to calm the nervous system, relax and your dilate blood vessels. Breathing exercises help calm your sympathetic nervous system and your fight-or-flight response. This technique also encourages blood flow to your body’s tissues and causes your diaphragm to move up and down, which eases blood flow to your heart.
Editor’s Note: Considerable controversy exists about whether fat or cholesterol are, per se, drivers of atherosclerosis. They are implicated in some studies, while others indicate that quality of fat, and placement in a wider dietary pattern, may be more significant to ultimate impact. What seems clear, however, is that a diet high in animal products, sugar, and processed foods is often a recipe for high blood pressure and heart disease.

Your doctor can help you measure and track your blood pressure to confirm whether it’s too high. You may need to start taking medications if your blood pressure doesn’t improve after one month of following a healthy lifestyle, especially if you’re already at high risk for heart disease. If you’re at lower risk, your doctor may want to follow up in three to six months after you’ve adopted more healthy habits.
Don’t get too excited. Turns out that dark chocolate (at least 50% to 70% cocoa) can give you a boost of a plant compound called flavanol. As with garlic, this antioxidant can raise your nitric oxide levels and widen blood vessels. That can make your blood pressure drop a notch. It goes without saying that a little bit of chocolate is all you need.
Hydralazine has been used for the treatment of high blood pressure since the 1950's. It is believed that hydralazine reduces blood pressure, however there are concerns due to the potential for this drug to cause adverse effects. The aim of this review was to determine the extent to which hydralazine reduces blood pressure, the nature of hydralazines adverse effect profile, and to determine the clinical impact of its use for hypertension. Unfortunately, the search revealed no randomized controlled trials which compared hydralazine to placebo as monotherapy for primary hypertension, therefore we are unable to make firm conclusions regarding its effects on blood pressure, adverse effects, or clinical outcomes. Some of the adverse effects related to hydralazine and that have been reported in the literature include reflex tachycardia, hemolytic anemia, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, and a lupus-like syndrome.
How do you check your own blood pressure? It is common to have your blood pressure checked at the doctor's office, but there are many cases where it is important to monitor it at home. It is easy to check blood pressure with an automated machine, but it can also be done manually at home. Learn how to check your own blood pressure and what the results mean. Read now
If you are in this 130/80 range, reducing your blood pressure can help protect you from heart attack, stroke, kidney disease, eye disease, and even cognitive decline. The goal of the new guidelines is to encourage you to treat your high blood pressure seriously and to take action to bring it down, primarily using lifestyle interventions. "It is well documented that lifestyle changes can lower blood pressure as much as pills can, and sometimes even more," says Dr. Fisher.
Your blood pressure is said to be “high” when either your systolic blood pressure is 140 or above, or your diastolic blood pressure is 90 or above, or both. So if your blood pressure is found to be 142/88 (systolic = 142, diastolic = 88), you are diagnosed as having high blood pressure, according to current definitions. The same would be true if your blood pressure was found to be 135/92, or 152/95. In each case, either the systolic is high, or the diastolic is high, or both. Any of these findings result in a diagnosis of high blood pressure.
Hypertension does not usually cause any noticeable symptoms. When it does, you might experience dizziness, shortness of breath, headaches, and nosebleeds, which could indicate that your blood pressure is rising. Complications such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure can occur if long-term hypertension is not adequately treated. A hypertensive emergency, which is an uncommon and dangerous event, may cause blurry vision, nausea, chest pain and anxiety.
There are many popular medical myths about high blood pressure. For example, many physicians believe that high blood pressure is an “inevitable consequence of aging;” that the “only viable treatment option for high blood pressure patients is medication”; that high blood pressure patients must take their medications “for the rest of their lives”; and, worst of all, that high blood pressure medications are “safe and effective.”

The chart below provides a general overview of blood pressure ranges updated to match the new American Heart Association guidelines. Take your blood pressure and identify your systolic & diastolic readings to compare ranges on the chart, OR enter your results in the blood pressure calculator to learn more about causes, symptoms, and treatment for your blood pressure readings
Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, however most heart attacks start slowly with mild pain and discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain. Shortness of breath may occur, as well as nausea, or lightheadedness. It is vital to get help immediately if any of these symptoms occur.

In “guessing” on the best initial single drug to try, most experts now recommend beginning either with either a thiazide diuretic (usually chlorthalidone or hydrochlorothiazide), a long-acting calcium blocker, or an ACE inhibitor. ARBs are generally thought of as substitutes for ACE inhibitors, and generally, are used only when ACE inhibitors are poorly tolerated.

Slash your blood pressure and lower your risk of chronic disease by making apricots a staple in your diet today. Whether you’re tossing some on a salad, eating dried apricots as a snack, or adding some to your favorite smoothie, these vitamin C-rich, beta-carotene-loaded fruits are the key to healthier blood pressure. Even better is the 3.3 grams of dietary fiber you’ll get per cup of apricots — research published in the Archives of Internal Medicine suggests that a high-fiber diet can significantly lower your blood pressure, too.
Other exercise options that don’t require a gym membership include body weight exercises, like pushups, squats, and jumping jacks. These exercises can be done at home or outside. For people who like going to the gym or running, these can be good ways to build community, notes Parker. Apps like Fitbit and MapMyRun can be helpful if you like keeping track of your steps, calories burned, weight, or number of miles run.
It's time to heed your partner's complaints and get that snoring checked out. Loud, incessant snores are a symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder characterized by brief yet potentially life-threatening interruptions in breathing during sleep. And many sleep apnea sufferers also have high levels of aldosterone, a hormone that can boost blood pressure, according to University of Alabama researchers. In fact, it's estimated that sleep apnea affects half of people with high blood pressure.
Exercise could be just as effective in lowering high blood pressure as prescribed medication. Researchers pooled data from nearly 400 trials and found that for people with high blood pressure, activity such as walking, swimming and simple weight training seemed to be just as good as most drugs used to treat it. However, the team warns people should not stop taking their medication until further studies are carried out.
The new guidelines note that blood pressure should be measured on a regular basis and encourage people to use home blood pressure monitors. Monitors can range from $40 to $100 on average, but your insurance may cover part or all of the cost. Measure your blood pressure a few times a week and see your doctor if you notice any significant changes. Here are some tips on how to choose and use a monitor.
If your blood pressure reading is 180/120 or higher and you’re experiencing symptoms such as shortness of breath, back pain, chest pain, numbness/weakness, change in vision, or difficulty speaking - you’re having a hypertensive emergency and need to seek emergency medical attention. Do not wait to see if your blood pressure improves. Call 911 or head to the nearest emergency room. To treat this serious condition, doctors may give you blood pressure medications intravenously (IV),  or other treatments aimed to decrease your risk of long-term effects.
Most doctors have been taught that once a diagnosis of “high blood pressure” has been made, blood pressure medication is the treatment of choice. As a result, many physicians believe that the current definition of “high” blood pressure is also the same level of blood pressure at which drug treatments are worthwhile. Unfortunately, this is not the case.
Reduce the stress in your life. Long-term stress can lead to high blood pressure. There are small lifestyle changes you can make to both combat stress and to manage the effects of it in healthy ways. Exercise, eating a healthy diet, limiting alcohol and caffeine intake, practicing yoga, meditation, or deep breathing, meditating, praying, journaling, laughing, listening to music, spending time with family and friends, and playing with animals can all help reduce your stress and lower blood pressure. Learn about more tips for reducing stress.
Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, however most heart attacks start slowly with mild pain and discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain. Shortness of breath may occur, as well as nausea, or lightheadedness. It is vital to get help immediately if any of these symptoms occur.
For infants, toddlers, and pre-adolescent aged children, doctors follow separate guidelines and standards to define high blood pressure. Average readings tend to be lower at a younger age and increase as you grow older . During late adolescence (around 17-19 yrs old) doctors typically begin to follow the standard adult guidelines for high blood pressure.
Preeclampsia is a condition that affects about 5 to 8 percent of pregnant women. In the women it affects, it usually develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Rarely, this condition can occur earlier in pregnancy or even postpartum. The symptoms include high blood pressure, headaches, possible liver or kidney problems, and sometimes sudden weight gain and swelling.
Digital blood pressure readings have two numbers – systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. The top number is your systolic blood pressure (the highest pressure when your heart beats and pushes blood around your body), and the bottom number is your diastolic blood pressure (the lowest pressure between heart beats). A blood pressure reading is usually these two numbers over each other – like 120/80.
The flagged medications, which include amlodipine/valsartan and amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination tablets, contain a potentially dangerous ingredient called N-nitroso-diethylamine (NDEA). The organic chemical is a known animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen, according to the FDA. It can also be toxic to the liver and other organs. 
Cut down on salt. As you get older, the body and blood pressure become more sensitive to salt (sodium), so you may need to watch how much salt is in your diet. Most of the salt comes from processed foods (for example, soup and baked goods). A low-salt diet, such as the DASH diet, might help lower your blood pressure. Talk with your doctor about eating less salt.
When discussing blood pressure issues, the healthcare professional may ask questions about past medical history, family history, and medication use, including prescriptions, over-the-counter medications, herbal remedies, and food additives. Other questions may include lifestyle habits, including activity levels, smoking, alcohol consumption, and illegal drug use.
Certain groups of people—the elderly, African Americans, and those with a family history of high blood pressure—are more likely than others to have blood pressure that's particularly salt-sensitive. But because there's no way to tell whether any one individual is at risk, everyone should consume less sodium, says Eva Obarzanek, PhD, a research nutritionist at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a phytochemical produced during the digestion of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and kale. Alongside exciting studies that suggest DIM may prevent cancer, the best DIM for menopause has hormone regulating properties, making it excellent for supporting you through the changes that occur during this time.

Up to 40% of patients taking clonidine (Catapres) will experience dry mouth and about a third will have drowsiness, headache, and sleepiness. Other common side effects include constipation, dizziness, and local skin reactions with use of the Catapres-TTS skin patch. Reserpine use is linked with possible side effects including nightmares, stuffy nose, depression, and an inability to fall asleep. Diarrhea and heartburn are also possible. Guanadrel and guanethidine can cause diarrhea and other gastrointestinal issues – as well as dizziness and drowsiness.
Dairy or soy—it’s your choice. Replacing some of the refined carbohydrates in your diet with foods high in soy or milk protein (like tofu or low-fat dairy) can bring down systolic blood pressure if you have hypertension or prehypertension, findings suggest. "Some patients get inflammation from refined carbohydrates, which will increase blood pressure," says Matthew J. Budoff, MD, FACC, Professor of Medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine and Director of Cardiac CT at the Division of Cardiology at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center.
Loading up on potassium-rich fruits and vegetables is an important part of any blood pressure-lowering program, says Linda Van Horn, PhD, RD, a professor of preventive medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Potassium encourages the kidneys to excrete more sodium through urination, and that sodium excretion can help lower blood pressure.
While fatty foods may seem like they have no place in a high blood pressure-fighting meal plan, fatty fish like salmon are a major exception to that rule. Salmon is loaded with heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids, which can help reduce inflammation, lower your risk of heart disease, and get your blood pressure into a healthy range. Research published in the June 2012 edition of the British Journal of Nutrition reveals that omega-3 supplementation reduced blood pressure among older patients and those with hypertension, making this tasty protein-rich fish a must-eat for anyone whose blood pressure has crept into a concerning range.
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